Sudan has always been afflicted by drastic and lethal conflicts. The root causes are not ethnic or political, but the state’s weak military which is leading the country to ruin, and among the macabre consequences especially is a non-stop humanitarian crisis.
It can be seen that the conflict is a struggle for power between two factions of the military, the armed forces of Sudan (AFS) leading By Gen Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan and a paramilitary group, the Rapid Support Force (RSF) led by General Mohamad Hamadan Dagalos, commonly known as Hemedti.
The origin of the conflict is traced back to when Omer Al-Bashir remained in power for 30 years in Sudan, but was overthrown in 2019 due to heavy mass protests against his long authoritarian governance, corruption accusations, economic crisis, military interference and political crisis. After his downfall the leader of the AFS, General Al-Burhan took power and became the de facto head of Sudan. Before taking power he promised that he would hold an election in 2023. It was a deal with RSF that there would be rule of civilians by 2024. However, General Burhan went back on his word.
As a result the RSF on 15 April 2023 attacked government sites in the capital city of Khartoum, in which an airstrike killed more than 100 people, a minimum 700 people were injured, more than 100,000 people were moved across the border and thousands of people were internally displaced and going to settle in safer places inside the country. The state, which was already in problems, was further sullied in the humanitarian crisis.
The conflict enters its fourth month and has killed 3000 people, while 11,714 were injured, 2.2 million are displaced and 600,000 have migrated to the neighbouring states, especially Egypt, Chad and South Sudan. The refugees are particularly from Khartoum city, and western region of Darfur. In the conflict not only locals but members of the elite and foreigners also became victims.
The governor of west Darfur, Khamis Abdallah Abbakar, was assassinated by the RSF because he publically criticized the action of RSF for spreading genocide in country in the name of demoracy. In conflict 15 Syrians, 15 Ethiopians, nine Eritreans were killed, an Indian working in Khartoum was hit by rocket, two Americans and one Turkish child was died when rocket hit their homes, and one student from the Republic of Congo was killed when a rocket hit him inside the International University of Africa in Khartoum.
The conflict has initiated the environment of violence and insecurity, making it difficult to achieve peace and stability in the country. The crisis in Sudan resulting from the conflicts had far reaching and painful consequences on the country and its people. Effects include displacement, violence, and insecurity. Solving all these crises would require immediate efforts focusing on building infrastructure and development. Only through collective action and commitment can Sudan move towards a more secure and prosperous future for its people.
A famous actress of yesteryear, Asia Abdelmajid, was killed in Khartoum. The singer Shaden Gardood was also killed in Omdurman in a crossfire, the onetime soccer national, Fozi el – Mardi was killed along with his daughter. Looking towards another humanitarian aspect of conflict, which is food insecurity, that has been seriously affecting the people of Sudan, with about 20 million people facing insecurity. It was estimated that one third of the population was already in hunger before the current conflict started. More than 620,000 people are suffering from malnutrition, and more than 100,000 children under the age of five are facing acute malnutrition. It is estimated by UNICEF that 14 million children are in serious need of humanitarian help. Since the conflict started 160 hospitals were attacked in the conflict zone, Not only hospitals but different NGO setups were also targeted, the information released by UN that 67 percent of hospitals are out of service, 162 humanitarian vehicles were stolen, 61 offices and 57 warehouses were looted and health workers have been killed. People and children are severely suffering from malnutrition, covid-19, Pneumonia, diarrhea, cholera, malaria, and dengue.
The country has a population of more than 24.7 million needing humanitarian assistance. $1.5 billion was collected, but still $1.5 billion is needed to handle the humanitarian crisis. The crisis in Sudan has had a great effect on the country and its people. There had been violence, displacement and destruction of essential services and infrastructure. And these consequences have created challenges and hurdles to fulfill the basic needs of the population.
One of the most significant impacts is the displacement of millions of people out of the country. These displaced persons and refugees faced challenges to have shelter, clean water, food and health care. These conditions and lack of stability has led the people to continuous suffering.
The destruction of infrastructure including hospitals, water and sanitation facilities has led to the lack of health care and it had an adverse impact on the future of the population, particularly children and youth.
Moreover the conflict has initiated the environment of violence and insecurity, making it difficult to achieve peace and stability in the country. The crisis in Sudan resulting from the conflicts had far reaching and painful consequences on the country and its people. Effects include displacement, violence, and insecurity. Solving all these crises would require immediate efforts focusing on building infrastructure and development. Only through collective action and commitment can Sudan move towards a more secure and prosperous future for its people.